El déficit de visión de Europa

Los festejos para celebrar el 50 aniversario del Tratado de Roma este mes llegan en un momento oportuno. Ahora es el momento de que la Unión Europea ponga fin a su “período de reflexión” autoimpuesto tras el rechazo de la Constitución Europea por parte de los franceses y los holandeses, y reinicie el proceso de unificación que empezó en Roma hace 50 años.

El período de reflexión estuvo absolutamente desprovisto de verdadera reflexión, y los líderes europeos no lograron ofrecerles a los ciudadanos de Europa una visión nueva y sustancial. ¿Cómo debería lograrse, entonces, una “refundación” (Neubergründung) de Europa –como lo llamó la canciller alemana, Angela Merkel, en su primer discurso parlamentario sobre política europea?

En teoría, existes tres visiones fundamentalmente diferentes y enfrentadas sobre el futuro de la UE. Algunas aún adoptan la forma de un “estado de estados nación”. Quienes piensan así –y a los que, imprecisamente, se llama “federalistas”- se refieren a la Constitución como un paso necesario hacia una federación europea.

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