L'Europe en manque d'horizon

La célébration du 50° anniversaire du traité de Rome ce mois-ci tombe à un moment opportun. Le temps est venu pour l’Union européenne de mettre fin à la "période de réflexion" qu'elle s'est imposée après le rejet de la Constitution européenne par les Français et les Hollandais et de remettre en route le processus de réunification entamé à Rome il y a 50 ans.

Cette période de réflexion a été caractérisée par un vide de la pensée, les dirigeants européens ne parvenant pas à offrir aux citoyens de l'Europe une perspective fondamentalement nouvelle. Dans ces conditions, comment réussir une refondation ( Neubegründung ) de l'Europe, que la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel a appelée de tous ses vœux lors de son premier discours devant le Parlement sur la politique européenne ?

En théorie, trois conceptions différentes de l'avenir de l'Europe sont en concurrence. La première propose une sorte de fédération d'Etats-nations. Ses partisans, souvent appelés un peu trop sommairement "fédéralistes", estiment que la Constitution est un passage obligé vers une fédération européenne.

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