Paul Lachine

Европе нужен «план Б»

НЬЮ-ЙОРК. ЕС появился на свет благодаря тому, что Карл Поппер назвал «постепенной социальной инженерией». Группа дальновидных государственных деятелей, которых воодушевила идея Соединенных Штатов Европы, осознала, что к этому идеалу нужно подходить постепенно, устанавливая ограниченные цели, мобилизуя политическую волю, необходимую для их достижения, и заключая договора, согласно которым от государств требовалось бы сдавать ровно столько суверенитета, сколько они могут политически себе позволить. И именно таким образом послевоенное Европейское объединение стали и угля трансформировалось в Евросоюз ‑ шаг за шагом, с пониманием того, что каждый шаг был неполным и что потребуются дальнейшие шаги в нужном направлении

Архитекторы Евросоюза сгенерировали необходимую политическую волю, воспользовавшись для этого памятью о второй мировой войне, а также угрозой, которую представлял собой Советский Союз, и экономическими выгодами большей интеграции. Данный процесс подпитывал свой собственный успех, и когда Советский Союз был разрушен, он получил мощный толчок от воссоединения Германии.

Германия поняла, что ее воссоединение возможно только в контексте объединения с другими странами Европы, и она была готова заплатить за это нужную цену. Благодаря немцам, которые помогли примирить конфликтующие национальные интересы, выложив на стол несколько больше других, процесс европейской интеграции достиг своего апогея, когда был заключен Маастрихтский договор и был введен евро.

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