Paul Lachine

L’Europe a besoin d’un plan B

NEW YORK – L’Europe a été créée via un mécanisme que Karl Popper a appelé le « piecemeal social engineering » (ingénierie sociale par étapes). Un groupe de dirigeants, partageant une vision de long terme de création d’Etats-Unis d’Europe, a reconnu que la seule manière d’y parvenir était d’avancer graduellement : établir des objectifs limités pour pouvoir mobiliser la volonté politique nécessaire à leur réalisation et conclure des traités imposant aux états de renoncer seulement à la partie de souveraineté qui leur était supportable politiquement. C’est ainsi que la Communauté du Charbon et de l’Acier d’après guerre a été transformée en UE – une étape à la fois, en étant conscient que chaque étape était incomplète et aurait besoin d’autres améliorations au moment opportun.

Les architectes de l’UE ont généré la volonté politique indispensable en invoquant le souvenir de la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, la menace posée par l’Union Soviétique et les bénéfices économiques liés à une plus grande intégration. Par la suite, le processus s’est autoalimenté et a été fortement stimulé par la perspective de réunification de l’Allemagne à la chute de l’Union Soviétique.

L’Allemagne savait qu’elle ne pouvait être réunifiée sans une unification européenne plus large, et était prête à en payer le prix. Les Allemands ont aidé à réconcilier les intérêts nationaux contradictoires en mettant un peu plus sur la table lors du Traité de Maastricht, qui a marqué l’apogée du processus d’intégration européenne avec l’introduction de l’euro.

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