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新欧洲的老幽灵

纽约—2014年,历史纠缠着欧洲。年初,一战爆发百年吸引了无数纪念热情。但是,随着2014年的深入,出现了令人担忧的比较——不是和1914年,而是一些两次大战之间的更凶险的特点。

从苏格兰和加泰罗尼亚到乌克兰边境,国籍政治(politics of nationality)闹得不可开交,与此同时,欧洲经济陷入了停滞——这是可追溯到1923年的德国通胀恐惧症的副作用。此外,随着2014年的展开,欧洲大陆两大20世纪初的巨人——德国和俄罗斯之间的新的地缘政治战争角力变得日益明显,而欧洲健忘的政治精英们在各个阵线上手忙脚乱。

任何还记得但泽和苏台德的人都会觉得2014年俄罗斯总统普京在东乌克兰顿巴斯地区的复仇主义令人不安地似成相识——没完没了的国籍归属主张和反主张在东欧边境引发了第二次世界大战。普京的羞辱和包围论、关于少数群体权利的策略性谈话、克里姆林宫对当地代理人的利用,以及伴随依靠这些行动者而产生的诸多不确定性——所有这些都让人想起两次大战期间德国自身的恢复国土政策。

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