Un "Plan Merkel" para Europa

LONDRES – Desde que estalló la crisis económica de Europa hace más de cuatro años, los políticos y los analistas han reclamado una gran solución, invocando muchas veces el ejemplo del Plan Marshall de postguerra de Estados Unidos que, desde su inicio en 1948, ayudó a reconstruir las economías destruidas y oprimidas por la deuda de Europa Occidental. Pero el momento político nunca llegó a madurar. Eso podría estar a punto de cambiar.

La situación de Europa hoy tiene algunas similitudes con los años 1940. Agobiados por deudas públicas que son consecuencia de errores pasados, los gobiernos de la eurozona saben lo que tienen que hacer pero no cómo hacerlo. No confían demasiado unos en los otros como para colaborar. Mientras tanto, la demanda en la mayor parte de la Unión Europea es débil, lo que le cierra las puertas al crecimiento económico necesario para pagar las deudas y ofrecer esperanza a los 25 millones de desocupados.

Una sospecha corta de miras ha sido el principal obstáculo para una gran solución. Los contribuyentes de ningún país han querido sentir que están pagando por los excesos de otros: la moneda única no impuso una responsabilidad compartida. De manera que los países acreedores, liderados por Alemania, han intentado hacer lo mínimo necesario para mantener al euro vivo, mientras que los deudores han refunfuñado con impotencia sobre la insistencia de Alemania en una austeridad fiscal.

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