„Plán Merkelová“ pro Evropu

LONDÝN – Už od vypuknutí evropské hospodářské krize před více než čtyřmi lety se politici a experti halasně dožadují nějakého velkého řešení, přičemž se často odvolávají na příklad poválečného amerického Marshallova plánu, který od roku 1948 pomáhal obnovit západoevropské ekonomiky, rozbité a zatížené dluhy. Pro takové řešení však nikdy nedozrál správný politický okamžik. Nyní by se to mohlo změnit.

Dnešní situace Evropy vykazuje některé podobnosti se čtyřicátými lety. Vlády členských zemí eurozóny, které jsou v důsledku minulých chyb zatížené veřejným dluhem, vědí, co potřebují udělat, avšak nevědí, jak to udělat. Příliš si navzájem nedůvěřují, než aby spolupracovaly. Poptávka ve většině Evropské unie je zatím slabá, což vylučuje hospodářský růst potřebný k tomu, aby se splatily dluhy a nabídla naděje 25 milionům nezaměstnaných.

Hlavní překážkou velkého řešení je zápecnická podezíravost. V žádné zemi nechtějí mít daňoví poplatníci pocit, že platí za výstřelky druhých: jednotná měna nezavedla společnou zodpovědnost. A tak se věřitelské země v čele s Německem snaží dělat nezbytné minimum, aby udržely euro při životě, zatímco zadlužené země bezmocně žehrají na tvrdošíjnost, s níž Německo trvá na fiskálních úsporných opatřeních.

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