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从源头解决移民问题

华盛顿——对贫困国家的公民来说,移民的选项往往非常具有吸引力。前往新国家的旅程往往伴随着危险,但却很可能带来重大的经济机遇:发达经济体的人均收入均值(以购买力平价计算)可以比发展中世界高出50倍乃至更多。在许多情况下,也会显著改善移民的人身安全状况。但对接收国来说,移民仍然是一个颇具争议的话题,接收国政府竭尽全力制定政策从而使本国经济能在避免付出过高的成本的同时获得收益。

移民是欧美国家特别突出的一项政治争议话题。即使在基本对移民关闭边境的日本,寻找方法应对人口快速老龄化的必要性最近也引发了对这一问题的讨论。

在所有这些国家,讨论往往归结于三个基本立场。第一种观点——其支持者往往是少数族裔,并且缺乏主要势力的政治支持——即移民主要为发达国家带来好处,因为新移民可以缓解人口压力并加固经济的技术根基。

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