La chance de la migration vers l'Europe

LONDRES – L'année passée, plus de 4 000 hommes, femmes et enfants ont perdu la vie en tentant de traverser la mer Méditerranée pour passer d'Afrique en Europe. Leur mort tragique n'a en rien ralenti la marée humaine plus nombreuse chaque semaine et les passeurs de la côte deviennent de plus en plus effrontés et cruels. Depuis le début de cette année seulement, des milliers de migrants ont été sauvés des eaux glaciales.

Dans ce contexte (et dans celui de la peur semée par les attentats terroristes à Paris et Copenhague), l'Union européenne a prévu de fixer un nouvel agenda, tout particulièrement important, sur les migrations. Lorsque les commissaires européens se réunissent pour débattre sur la manière de procéder, ils doivent résister à la tentation de choisir des solutions à court terme de réaction instinctive et développer plutôt un plan véritablement créatif et global d'action au plan national et international.

La dernière fois où l'Europe a fait face à tel un moment décisif sur la migration remonte à 2011, quand le Printemps arabe a déclenché un flot de nouveaux arrivants qui fuyaient la violence et le chaos en Afrique du Nord. Mais l'occasion de mesures courageuses (la création d'un Plan Marshall pour la Méditerranée en vue de canaliser des investissements dans l'intégration des immigrants), est passée sans que personne ne la saisisse. Au lieu de cela, l'UE a fait un peu de bricolage bureaucratique dans son système d'asile et s'est épuisée dans des débats sur de faux problèmes, comme les « abus sur les allocations » par les migrants.

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