Paul Lachine

切勿把欧洲当成美国

发自剑桥——在一个国情千差万别的国家集团中推行单一货币必将引发某些负面后果,而欧洲目前正为此焦头烂额。但希腊的预算危机以及意大利、西班牙两国的破产风险只不过是单一货币所导致的其中一部分问题而已。欧洲各大银行的脆弱性,高失业率以及欧洲各国之间的巨额贸易不平衡(德国拥有2000亿欧元经常账户盈余,相反其他欧元区国家合共存在3000亿欧元的经常账户亏损)也是因为欧元的推行而导致的。

经济学家曾经警告一个全欧洲通用的单一货币将造成严重问题,但那些坚持在1999年启动欧元的欧洲政治家却忽略了这一点。欧元的鼓吹者们把注意力放在了欧洲政治整合的目标之上,并将单一货币视为培养政治认同感的其中一环。他们用“一个市场,一种货币”这样的口号来发动群众,声称只有依靠一个单一货币才能最终建成欧盟自由贸易区。

然而历史和经济学逻辑都无法支撑上述观点。事实上,尽管27个欧盟成员国中只有17个使用欧元,但欧盟贸易依旧运作良好。

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