L’Europe au sein du FMI

BRUXELLES – Les dirigeants européens ne se lassent jamais de rappeler à leurs électeurs, comme une litanie, que les économies des principaux pays émergents bouleversent l’ordre économique mondial existant. Mais dès lors qu’il s’agit de reconnaître cette réalité au sein des institutions financières internationales, on entend un tout autre refrain. Ce constat s’applique tout particulièrement à la zone euro.

La zone euro en tant que telle n’a aucune représentation au sein des institutions financières internationales. Dans le cas du Fonds monétaire international (FMI) par exemple, douze pays de la zone euro sont représentés au conseil d’administration par le biais de circonscriptions, ou de groupes de pays. Les deux plus importants pays de la zone euro, l’Allemagne et la France, ont leur propre représentation permanente au sein du conseil. Dix autres pays membres de la zone euro sont représentés au sein de quatre autres circonscriptions présidées par la Belgique, les Pays-Bas, l’Espagne et l’Italie. Ces quatre dernières circonscriptions regroupent toutefois plus de vingt autres pays, qui pour la plupart ne sont même pas membres de l’UE.

Si l’on compte les circonscriptions scandinave et britannique, nous avons donc huit représentants de l’UE au sein du conseil d’administration du FMI. Étant donné que les statuts de l’institution prévoient qu’il y ait au maximum 20 administrateurs, cela signifie que 40 pour cent de tous les administrateurs du FMI sont des Européens, dont un tiers appartient à la zone euro.

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