European Union flag. European Parliament/Flickr

La política distópica de Europa

TOKIO – La reciente victoria del conservador Partido de la Ley y la Justicia en Polonia confirma una tendencia reciente en Europa: el acenso del capitalismo de Estado iliberal, encabezado por populistas derechistas autoritarios. Se puede llamar Putinomía en Rusia, Órbanomía en Hungría, Erdoğanomía en Turquía o un decenio de Berlusconomía, de la que Italia aún no se ha recuperado. Pronto veremos sin lugar a dudas la Kaczýnskinomía en Polonia.

Todas ellas son variaciones del mismo tema discordante: un dirigente nacionalista llega al poder cuando el malestar económico da paso a un estancamiento crónico y persistente. Ese autoritario democráticamente elegido empieza después a reducir la libertad política mediante un control férreo de los medios de comunicación, en particular la televisión. Después (hasta ahora siempre han sido hombres, si bien Marine Le Pen, de Francia, encajaría en ese modelo, si alguna vez llegara al poder) aplica un programa opuesto a la Unión Europea (cuando el país es miembro de ella) u otras instituciones de gobernación supranacional.

También se opondrá al libre comercio, la mundialización, la inmigración y la inversión extranjera directa, mientras que favorecerá a los trabajadores y las empresas nacionales, en particular las de propiedad estatal y las privadas y a los grupos financieros con vínculos con los ocupantes del poder. En algunos casos, partidos nacionalistas claramente racistas apoyan a semejantes gobiernos o aportan un carácter aún más autoritario y antidemocrático.

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