European Union flag. European Parliament/Flickr

Les régimes dystopiques de l'Europe

TOKYO – La récente victoire du parti conservateur Droit et Justice (PiS) en Pologne confirme une tendance récente en Europe : la montée d'un capitalisme d'État anti-libéral, dirigé par des régimes autoritaires d'extrême-droite. On peut l'appeler Poutinomics en Russie, Órbanomics en Hongrie, Erdoğanomics en Turquie. On peut également parler d'une décennie de Berlusconomics dont l'Italie se remet à peine. Nous allons sans doute bientôt découvrir les Kaczyńskinomics en Pologne.

Tous ces régimes sont des variations sur un même thème discordant : un leader nationaliste arrive au pouvoir quand le malaise économique cède la place à la stagnation chronique et séculaire. Cet élu autoritaire commence alors à réduire les libertés politiques par le contrôle étroit des médias, notamment de la télévision. Puis cet homme (jusqu'à présent, il s'agit toujours d'un homme, même si Marine Le Pen en France pourrait correspondre au profil si elle devait arriver au pouvoir), s'emploie à s'opposer à l'Union européenne (lorsque le pays en est membre) ou à d'autres institutions de gouvernance supranationale.

Il s'opposera également au libre-échange, à la mondialisation, à l'immigration et aux investissements directs étrangers, tout en favorisant les employés et les entreprises nationales, en particulier les entreprises publiques et les groupes d'affaire et financiers privés liés au pouvoir en place. Dans certains cas, des partis ouvertement xénophobes et racistes soutiennent un tel gouvernement ou lui fournissent une ligne autoritaire et anti-démocratique encore plus marquée.

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