European Union flag. European Parliament/Flickr

欧洲的反乌托邦政治

东京—最近,保守派的劳动和正义党(Law and Justice,PiS)在波兰选举中取得胜利,这确认了欧洲的一个最新趋势:不自由的国家资本主义在民粹主义右翼集权派的领导下崛起。在俄罗斯,这是普京经济学,匈牙利是奥班经济学,土耳其是厄尔多安经济学,还有意大利迄今还未爬出大坑的为期十年的贝卢斯科尼经济学。毫无疑问,用不了多久我们就将看到波兰的卡钦斯基经济学。

所有这些都是同一个不变主题的变体:一位民族主义领导人,在经济不振演变为慢性的长期停滞时上台掌权。接着,当选的极权派开始通过铁腕控制媒体特别是电视缩减政治自由。接着,他(到目前为止,这些人都是男性,尽管法国的马琳·勒庞如果能够掌权的话也符合这一模式)开始追求反对欧盟(如果他的国家是欧盟成员的话)或其他超国家治理机构的日程。

他还会反对自由贸易、全球化、移民和外国直接投资,同时偏袒国内工人和企业,特别是国有企业和与掌权派关系密切的私营企业和金融集团。在一些例子中,彻底的先天论种族主义政党支持这样的政府或表现出根深的极权主义和反民主倾向。

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