Dated European map

Les trois fractures de l’Europe

PARIS – Il y a dix ou vingt ans, l’Union européenne se posait une question existentielle : avait-elle encore un sens dans un monde globalisé ? Aujourd’hui, la question est de savoir si l’Union sera capable de résister aux chocs de grande ampleur qui l’ébranlent de l’extérieur.

Les pourtours de l’Europe sont pauvres et dangereux. Le revenu par habitant est au moins cinq fois plus faible au sud de Gibraltar qu’au nord. La guerre, voici peu, faisait encore rage en Ukraine. Le conflit israélo-palestinien dure depuis plus de cinquante ans. Et la guerre en Irak était à peine terminée que le chaos s’emparait de la Syrie.

Après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, l’Europe a pu se permettre, pendant plusieurs décennies, de négliger ce qui se passait au-delà de ses frontières : la sécurité était l’affaire des États-Unis. Mais les choses ont changé. En se retirant d’Irak, les Américains ont marqué les limites de leur engagement. Et les problèmes de son voisinage immédiat frappent aujourd’hui à la porte de l’UE – non seulement en Syrie, mais aussi à l’est et au sud. Il semblerait donc que la priorité des priorités soit désormais pour l’Union de se protéger et de contribuer à la stabilité de son environnement.

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