L'Europe franchit le Rubicon

La prétendue “Politique européenne de voisinage” est pour l'instant une chose bien curieuse. On en parle beaucoup dans l'Union européenne, mais elle n'a que peu d'effets sur le plan pratique. Elle a été conçue pour servir d'alternative au nombre croissant de cycles d'accession, impliquant par exemple les pays du Caucase du Sud. Mais la guerre au Liban et ses conséquences ont provoqué un changement soudain et fondamental dans la tranquille poursuite de cette politique.

La guerre au Liban a cruellement rappelé à l'Union européenne qu'elle a des “intérêts stratégiques”, qui sont avant tout des intérêts sécuritaires, et que si elle choisit de les ignorer elle risque de le payer cher. En outre, la division du travail entre les États-Unis et l'Europe ne fonctionne plus comme au bon vieux temps : la guerre en cours en Irak ronge les capacités militaires américaines et a débouché sur une crise de légitimité morale et politique des États-Unis dans le monde arabe/islamique.

En décidant d'envoyer plusieurs milliers de soldats au Liban pour mettre en œuvre la résolution 1701 de cessez-le-feu de l'ONU, les États-membres de l'Union européenne ont pris la décision la plus significative dans le cadre de sa Politique de voisinage. L'Union européenne est-elle capable de devenir une force politique stabilisatrice dans la zone de conflit la plus dangereuse du voisinage géopolitique immédiat de l'Europe ?

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