Los dos futuros de Europa

PARÍS – Una vez más, Europa parece haber llegado a un punto de bifurcación en el camino que recorre. En una dirección se encuentra el futuro que describen los pesimistas, quienes sostienen que el aumento de los movimientos populistas y la caída del euro son la evidencia de que próximamente el continente se deslizará en el olvido geopolítico y económico. En la otra dirección se encuentra un camino empinadamente ascendente que lleva a la integración y al resurgimiento de Europa como una potencia mundial – este es el camino, según los optimistas, que el continente tomará a medida que despierte y reconozca que debe tener la capacidad de soportar las tormentas más severas.

No se sabe cuál de estos dos posibles futuros se hará realidad. ¿Es Europa “una abuela que ya no es fértil ni vivaz”?, tal como el Papa Francisco dijo cuando se dirigió al Parlamento Europeo el pasado noviembre. O, ¿es un ave fénix, a punto de levantarse (una vez más) de sus cenizas? El resultado depende, por supuesto, de cómo los europeos responden a sus actuales penurias. Además, al considerar sus opciones, ellos harían bien en tomar en cuenta cómo se percibe al continente desde el exterior.

Para empezar, es importante reconocer que el panorama se ve sombrío. Setenta años después de la liberación de Auschwitz, aún se continúa atacando y asesinando a judíos en las ciudades europeas. Más de 50 años después del fin de la Guerra de Argelia, los musulmanes europeos son ahora más discriminados que nunca. Debido a que los separatistas apoyados por Rusia – y quizás incluso tropas rusas – luchan contra las fuerzas gubernamentales en Ucrania, el espectro de la guerra, una vez más acecha al continente. Además, la elección de un gobierno de izquierda en Grecia ha planteado la interrogante sobre si la introducción del euro hubiese sido una buena idea.

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