Train station in Germany

申根大地的报应时刻

法兰克福—无国界欧洲之梦由来已久,在20世纪90年代中期曾经成为现实,现在正在快速消亡。意大利正在阻挠欧盟收买土耳其让难民不要进入希腊进而进入德国、瑞典或其他北欧国家的决定。而德国财政部长朔伊布勒(Wolfgang Schäuble)为此呼吁团结,警告说否则的话边境守卫很快就会恢复,首先是在德国-奥地利边境。

诚然,申根协议的解体未必标志着欧洲工程的末日,至少在理论上如此。申根协议始于1995年,规定大部分欧盟国家间可以免签旅行。从经济上讲,边境控制和税收差不多;它们增加交易成本,减少跨境商品和服务流,从而扭曲经济活动。没有边境控制——并且更重要地,引入共同货币——将让市场更加有效。

当然,这并不意味着单一市场不能在存在边境控制或多货币的情况下运转。这只是意味着这类“再国家化”会带来巨大的成本,包括生产率下降和产能大幅降低等。

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