Europa paso a paso

ROMA – Hace un año, pocas personas habrían apostado que la Unión Europea, aún en recuperación del trauma que significó el rechazo del Tratado Constitucional en 2005, estaría lista para ratificar el nuevo Tratado de Reforma, adoptado en diciembre pasado en Lisboa. Para algunos, el hecho de que el Reino Unido podría ratificarlo incluso antes que otros países tradicionalmente “proeuropeos” como Italia simplemente subraya la falta de iniciativas nuevas y audaces en el Tratado para acelerar la unificación europea. Pero están equivocados.

Es cierto que la insatisfacción impaciente ha sido el motor de la integración europea desde sus primeros años. Pero como escribió Robert Schuman en su Declaración de 1950, Europa no se puede construir de una sola vez. Igualmente, Altiero Spinelli, otro de los padres fundadores de la UE, escribió hacia el final de su vida que sin europeos visionarios no habría Europa, pero sin estadistas pragmáticos los visionarios no habrían logrado nada.

Las deficiencias del Tratado de Reforma son evidentes. Abandonar el nombre de “Constitución” tal vez fue necesario para convencer a todos los Estados miembros. Pero la persistente incertidumbre en cuanto a la plataforma política común sobre la que se tendrá que apoyar la voz de Europa en política exterior no es igualmente necesaria. Además, el Espacio de Libertad, Seguridad y Justicia aún exige la unanimidad para las decisiones esenciales con respecto a la lucha contra el crimen y el terrorismo, lo que implica una lentitud desesperante. El Tratado tampoco hace lo suficiente para fortalecer la coordinación de las políticas económica y presupuestal de Europa.

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