L’Europe, petit à petit

ROME – Il y a un an, peu de gens auraient parié que l’Union européenne, toujours sous le choc du rejet du Traité constitutionnel de 2005, serait sur le point de ratifier le nouveau Traité de réforme adopté à Lisbonne en décembre dernier. Pour certains, que le Royaume-Uni puisse le ratifier avant même les pays traditionnellement « proeuropéens », comme l’Italie, met tout simplement en relief le manque d’initiatives nouvelles et audacieuses du Traité pour accélérer l’unification européenne. Mais ces détracteurs ont tort.

Il est certain que l’impatience et la frustration sont depuis le début des forces motrices de l’intégration européenne. Comme l’affirmait Robert Schuman dans sa Déclaration de 1950 : « l’Europe ne se fera pas d’un coup ». De même, comme l’a écrit sur le tard Altiero Spinelli, autre père fondateur de l’Union européenne, sans visionnaires européens, il n’y aurait pas d’Europe ; mais sans hommes d’État pragmatiques, les visionnaires seraient allés nulle part.

Les points faibles du Traité de réforme sont évidents. L’abandon de l’intitulé « constitution » était probablement nécessaire pour remettre les États membres en selle. Toutefois, il n’était pas utile de faire durer les incertitudes quant à la plateforme politique commune sur laquelle la voix européenne devra compter en politique étrangère. Qui plus est, l’espace de liberté, de sécurité et de justice exige toujours l’unanimité pour les décisions essentielles en matière de lutte contre le crime et le terrorisme – ce qui signifie que les processus sont parfois d’une lourdeur insoutenable. Le Traité ne suffit pas non plus pour renforcer la coordination des politiques économiques et budgétaires européennes.

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