逐步一体化的欧洲

罗马——一年前,当欧盟宪法在2005年被否的伤痛尚未平复的时候,几乎没有人敢断定欧盟会以如此平稳的姿态批准去年12月在里斯本通过的新《改革条约》。在一些人看来,英国甚至先于意大利这样有 “亲欧洲”传统的国家签署这项条约,只能进一步说明这项条约在加速欧洲的统一步伐方面缺乏新鲜而大胆的创意。但是他们看错了。

勿庸置疑,从欧盟成立初期起,对于现状的急切不满就是推进欧洲一体化的一种驱动力量。但是,正像罗伯特·舒曼在他1950年发表的宣言中所写到的那样,大欧洲的建成不可能一蹙而就。另外一位欧盟之父阿尔蒂诺·斯皮内利在晚年同样写道,如果没有充满幻想的欧洲人就不会有大欧洲,但是如果没有脚踏实地的政治家,这些幻想也将无果而终。

《改革条约》的缺陷显而易见。放弃“宪法”之名可能是将所有欧盟成员国招至麾下的必要做法。但是,欧洲外交政策的口径需要有共同的政纲,而在这个问题上一直举棋不定就不是那么有必要了。除此以外,在公民自由,国家安全和司法等领域也需要达成一致,从而为打击犯罪和恐怖主义确定基本决策,但这些方面缓慢的进展却让人难以忍受。条约在加强欧洲各国经济和预算合作领域的力度也明显不够。

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