L’Europe et la crise alimentaire mondiale

PARIS – Le monde a été ébranlé ces derniers mois par des hausses sans précédent des prix des denrées alimentaires, des émeutes de la faim et des tensions sociales qui ont démontré que l’approvisionnement en nourriture est à nouveau source d’insécurité - à laquelle le changement climatique et le déclin des ressources naturelles ajoutent une nouvelle urgence. D’après les estimations, la Terre comptera 9 milliards d’individus d’ici 2050 et les besoins en nourriture pourraient doubler, principalement au sein des populations urbaines des pays les plus pauvres.

Mais trouver une solution va au-delà de la simple identification des pays capables de nourrir le reste du monde. Il est de plus en plus urgent que chaque nation soit en mesure de se nourrir elle-même. Cela signifie que l’agriculture doit devenir une priorité internationale, avec une aide octroyée aux pays les plus pauvres pour qu’ils établissent l’indépendance et la sécurité de leur approvisionnement alimentaire.

Les pays et les organisations internationales commencent déjà se mobiliser. L’organisation des Nations unies pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture estime que l’augmentation du prix des aliments comporte le risque d’un accroissement des conflits mondiaux. Le Forum économique mondial de Davos a fait de l’insécurité alimentaire l’un des principaux risques mondiaux. La Banque mondiale a vigoureusement souligné l’importance de l’agriculture pour faire démarrer l’expansion économique et briser le cercle vicieux de la pauvreté. Ban Ki-moon, le secrétaire général des Nations unies, a mis sur pied un groupe de travail pour élaborer un plan d’action commun, et Nicolas Sarkozy, le président français, a proposé un partenariat mondial pour l’alimentation et l’agriculture.

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