L’Europa e la primavera araba

PARIGI – Nel 1989 il muro che separava le due metà d’Europa crollò improvvisamente. Nel giro di pochi mesi, un ordine fino ad allora apparentemente immutabile lasciò il passo a commozione e ansia. All’inizio i vecchi paesi d’Europa erano paralizzati, intimoriti dall’ignoto e preoccupati per l’immigrazione, poi colsero appieno l’opportunità che la storia offriva loro.

L’Europa attuò programmi di assistenza finanziaria e tecnica, aprì negoziati commerciali e promise un allargamento ad est dell’Unione europea, che alla fine portò alla libera circolazione dei lavoratori oltre l’ex cortina di ferro. Da allora sono passati due decenni. Gli sforzi si sono rivelati un successo straordinario. La transizione economica e politica dell’Europa orientale ex-comunista è stata rapida e profonda e, a parte la drammatica eccezione della Jugoslavia, è stata condotta in modo pacifico, consentendo così una forte performance economica.

Potrebbe ripetersi una simile storia (ovviamente non identica) nel bacino meridionale del Mediterraneo? È la domanda cruciale che ci si pone in questa “primavera araba”.

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