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Il Sentiero Stretto dell’Euro

BERKELEY – La vittoria di Emmanuel Macron alle elezioni presidenziali francesi, e un comodo vantaggio nei sondaggi di opinione dell’Unione Cristiano-Democratica, il partito di Angela Merkel, prima delle elezioni politiche generali in Germania del 24 settembre, hanno determinato un’apertura a favore della riforma della zona euro. L’euro è sempre stato un progetto franco-tedesco. Con un nuovo leader dinamico in un paese, ed un nuovo mandato popolare nell’altro, oggi la Francia e la Germania hanno l’opportunità di correggere i difetti più gravi della loro creatura.

Ma le due parti rimangono profondamente divise. Macron, seguendo una tradizione francese di lunga data, insiste sul fatto che l’unione monetaria soffre di scarsa centralizzazione. La zona euro, egli afferma, necessita di un proprio ministero delle finanze e di un proprio parlamento. Essa ha bisogno di un bilancio di centinaia di miliardi di euro per finanziare progetti di investimento ed aumentare la spesa in paesi con elevata disoccupazione.

Merkel, d’altra parte, imputa il problema dell’unione monetaria ad una centralizzazione troppo forte e ad una scarsa responsabilità nazionale. La leader si preoccupa che un bilancio dell’ eurozona di grande entità non verrebbe speso in modo responsabile. Sebbene non sia contraria ad un ministero delle finanze della zona euro, non ritiene opportuno che tale istituzione sia dotata di poteri espansivi.

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