Евросоюз-Турция: Перезагрузка

РИМ – В этом году Турция будет принимать саммит «большой двадцатки», десятую ежегодную встречу глав государств G-20. Внимание мира будет приковано к Турции в трудное время, когда эта страна оказалась окружена растущим кольцом нестабильности.

В соседних с Турцией странах распадаются сразу два геополитических порядка: согласие с Россией, существовавшее после окончания Холодной войны, и государственные границы Ближнего Востока, определенные соглашением Сайкса-Пико 1916 года и Версальским договором 1919 года. Никогда еще Европейский союз и Турция так не нуждались друг в друге, однако редко когда они были столь далеки, как сейчас.

Турция больше не является той восходящей региональной звездой, которой она была в первой половине 12-летнего правления президента Реджепа Тайипа Эрдогана. Давно прошли дни, когда страна переживала экономический бум и двигалась к настоящей демократии, вдохновляя многих в регионе. Сегодня у Турции мириады проблем: растущий авторитаризм, маловыразительный экономический рост, вялотекущий мирный процесс по курдскому вопросу. Протяженность ее сухопутной границы с Сирией достигает 900 км, поэтому Турции пришлось принять почти 2 млн сирийских беженцев и оказаться уязвимой перед атаками и инфильтрацией Исламского государства. Глубоко укоренилась напряженность в отношениях как с Ираном, так и с Израилем; увеличилась зависимость страны от поставок энергоресурсов из реваншистской России.

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