Une remise à zéro entre l'UE et la Turquie

ROME – Dans le courant de l'année, la Turquie va accueillir le Sommet des Dirigeants du G-20 de 2015, la dixième réunion annuelle des chefs de gouvernement du G-20. Cette entrée du pays sur le devant de la scène mondiale intervient à un moment étrange, alors qu'il se trouve au centre d'un foyer grandissant d'instabilité.

En effet, deux ordres géopolitiques sont en train de se déliter aux environs immédiats de la Turquie : l'entente post-Guerre froide avec la Russie et les frontières nationales du Moyen-Orient définies par le l'accord Sykes-Picot de1916. Et le Traité de Versailles de1919. L'Union européenne et la Turquie n'ont jamais eu autant besoin l'une de l'autre. Elles n'ont pourtant jamais été aussi distantes.

La Turquie n'est plus l'étoile montante de la région, qu'elle était durant la première moitié du mandat de 12 ans du président Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Cette époque est bel et bien révolue où le pays était en plein essor sur le plan économique et s'avançait vers une démocratie authentique, source d'inspiration pour beaucoup d'autres pays de la région. Aujourd'hui la Turquie fait face à des défis multiples : de plus en plus d'autoritarisme, une croissance médiocre et un processus de paix kurde chancelant. Avec 900 kilomètres de frontière avec la Syrie, elle accueille près de deux millions de réfugiés syriens et est vulnérable aux attaques et à l'infiltration par l'État islamique. Les tensions avec l'Iran et Israël se sont profondément enracinées et le pays dépend de plus en plus de l'énergie d'une Russie revancharde.

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