La soberanía mágica

MADRID – La Unión Europea es un experimento político que ha llevado la integración democrática a niveles desconocidos en la historia. Sin imposiciones militares, basado en la libre voluntad de sus miembros, la UE se sitúa en la vanguardia de la innovación institucional. Por eso, desde esa perspectiva, no tiene sentido que unos –necesitados de ayuda financiera– actúen de manera unilateral aduciendo su condición de ‘soberanos’ y otros funcionen como simples acreedores ignorando el sufrimiento social que ha provocado la crisis. Hay que mover el marco del debate público europeo. Es urgente asentar un paradigma de cooperación leal entre socios y amigos, no entre rivales cuyas posiciones parecen irreconciliables.

El proceso de integración europeo ha sido, en lo fundamental, armonioso, ordenado y justo. Ahora, sin embargo, la larga crisis económica ha puesto en jaque los cimientos más profundos de nuestra unión. Hasta ahora, y gracias a fondos como los de cohesión, los países comparativamente menos ricos han recibido gran cantidad de recursos económicos que han mejorado su renta per cápita. La crisis ha cambiado las condiciones. La pertenencia a la UE se percibe como costosa por gran parte de esas sociedades.

Es por ello que la demanda de ‘soberanía nacional’ retorna con fuerza al debate público europeo. La victoria electoral de Syriza en Grecia y el auge de diferentes partidos de todo signo político en el resto de Estados Miembros lo pone de manifiesto. Todos ellos hablan de soberanía nacional frente a los llamados poderes exteriores, conformando un eje político transversal con un gran componente nacionalista. Es lo único que puede explicar la coalición de gobierno en Atenas.

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