Jsou národní šampioni skutečnými vítězi?

KOLÍN NAD RÝNEM – Na prvním místě evropské podnikatelské agendy už opět figuruje výroba. Předchozí eurokomisař pro průmysl a podnikání Antonio Tajani – kterého nedávno vystřídala Elżbieta Bieńkowská – stanovil cíl zvýšit podíl výroby na celkovém HDP z něco málo přes 15% v roce 2012 na 20% v roce 2020. Mají-li však členské státy tohoto cíle dosáhnout, budou se muset přehodnotit současné politické přístupy uvnitř EU. Jakákoliv moderní průmyslová politika totiž musí obnášet víc než pouhé určování vítězů.

Vlády členských zemí EU uplatňují ve svých výrobních sektorech odlišné a často i protichůdné strategie. Německo se zaměřuje na vytváření konkurenčního rámce, který umožňuje „skrytým šampionům“ vystupovat v roli globálních lídrů. Naproti tomu Francie chce vytvářet národní šampiony volbou konkrétních sektorů, jimž poskytuje speciální podporu; tamní vláda nedávno označila plány na převzetí podílu v automobilce Peugeot za projev „průmyslového vlastenectví".

Předchozí zkušenosti však naznačují, že francouzský přístup nedopadne dobře. Jak v roce 2004 uvedla zpráva německé antimonopolní komise, „francouzský zápal pro prohlášení k průmyslové politice a mediální obdiv k aktivismu zodpovědných ministrů je v naprostém nepoměru k úspěšnosti této politiky“.

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