Ampliación de la UE: opciones y errores

CAMBRIDGE: En toda América Latina crecen las presiones para asociarse con los EU a fin de incrementar la integración regional. Vicente Fox, el presidente entrante de México, ha hecho de la integración de los mercados laborales un asunto importante en su agenda. Argentina espera alcanzar un acuerdo de libre comercio como una forma de acercarse a los EU, al menos a ojos de los inversionistas, y así eliminar el riesgo de las sobreprimas que recientemente se han impuesto al capital. En Asia, a raíz de la crisis financiera de 1997, Japón está promoviendo agresivamente la integración económica regional. Los bancos centrales han negociado líneas de crédito en Swaps; otras economías asiáticas han ofrecido pactos de libre comercio a un Japón reacio. Se está presionando hacia una integración monetaria a Corea del Sur, quien se muestra aterrorizada ante esta propuesta de Japón.

Es, sin embargo, en Europa donde se está dando el intento de integración regional más audaz, al abrirse la UE al Este. Después de la ola del Sur (Portugal, España y Grecia) de hace dos décadas, esta nueva ola involucra a 10 economías postcomunistas en varias etapas. Las más importantes, en términos de tamaño y proximidad, son Polonia, Hungría y la República Checa. Pero la lista penetra en las profundidades de los Balcanes e incluye a Rumania y probablemente aun a Turquía como miembros potenciales de la UE.

La UE y los Candidatos para Adhesión

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