Comment échapper au piège de la pauvreté

La lutte contre la pauvreté doit rester la priorité politique en Amérique latine et dans les Caraïbes. Dans cette région, les inégalités sont plus fortes que partout ailleurs, une personne sur cinq survivant avec guère plus de deux dollars par jour (somme calculée en fonction du taux de change à parité de pouvoir d'achat de 1993).

La pauvreté est un phénomène intrinsèquement dynamique. Les pauvres sont prisonniers d'un manque de qualifications et de moyens. Aussi, les mesures de réduction de la pauvreté doivent-elles motiver les pauvres à acquérir les moyens et les compétences qui leurs permettront d'échapper à leur situation.

Certes, il est impossible de faire de sérieuses avancées dans la lutte contre la pauvreté sans une croissance économique durable. Mais au regard des résultats économiques du continent au cours des 15 dernières années, il apparaît que la croissance à elle seule ne permettra pas de réduire la pauvreté de plus de 25% au cours des 10 prochaines années. Même si les décideurs politiques parviennent à créer un environnement qui récompense mieux les investissements et de ce fait favorise la croissance, les maux de l'Amérique latine persisteront. L'importance des écarts de revenu nécessite des moyens spécifiques de lutte contre la pauvreté.

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