Jon Krause

Escapar a la maldición del petróleo

CAMBRIDGE – Los libios tienen una nueva oportunidad en la vida, la sensación de que, por fin, son dueños de su destino. Tal vez los iraquíes, después de un decenio de guerra, se sientan igual. Los dos países son productores de petróleo y  existe la esperanza generalizada entre sus ciudadanos de que esa riqueza será una gran ventaja para reconstruir sus sociedades.

Entretanto, en África, Ghana ha empezado a bombear a petróleo y Uganda está a punto de hacerlo también. De hecho, desde el África occidental hasta Mongolia los países están experimentando beneficios inesperados resultantes de nuevos descubrimientos de riqueza petrolera y mineral. La euforia se intensifica por los niveles sin precedentes que los precios del petróleo y los minerales han alcanzado en los mercados mundiales en los cuatro últimos años.

Muchos países han estado en esa situación antes, eufóricos ante bonanzas en materia de recursos naturales para después ver con decepción acabarse el auge con la oportunidad desperdiciada, con pocos réditos en cuanto a una mayor calidad de vida para su pueblo, pero actualmente tanto en Libia como en Ghana los dirigentes políticos tienen una ventaja: la mayoría conocen muy bien la Historia y quieren saber cómo evitar la infame “maldición” de los recursos naturales.

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