Jon Krause

Echapper à la malédiction du pétrole

CAMBRIDGE – Les Libyens renaissent à la vie, avec le sentiment d’être, enfin, maitres de leur propre destin. Peut-être les Irakiens partagent-ils aussi ce même sentiment, après une décennie de guerre. Ces deux pays sont producteurs de pétrole, et leurs citoyens espèrent ardemment que cette richesse sera un grand avantage dans la reconstruction de leurs sociétés.

Dans le même temps en Afrique, le Ghana a commencé à extraire pour la première fois du pétrole, et l’Ouganda est sur le point de faire de même. En effet, de l’Afrique de l’ouest à la Mongolie, les pays recueillent les fruits inattendus de ces nouvelles découvertes de richesses pétrolières et minières. Et l’euphorie est soutenue par les niveaux historiques des prix du pétrole et des minerais sur les marchés mondiaux depuis quatre ans.

De nombreux pays se sont déjà retrouvés dans cette situation auparavant, grisés par le pactole des ressources naturelles avant de voir la prospérité virer à la déception, les opportunités dilapidées, et si peu de bénéfices en terme d’une meilleure qualité de vie pour leur peuple. Mais, que ce soit en Libye ou au Ghana, les responsables politiques aujourd’hui ont un avantage : la plupart d’entre eux sont conscients de cette situation, et veulent connaître le moyen d’éviter la fameuse « malédiction » des ressources naturelles.

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