Europas unsichere neue Normalität

LONDON – Vor zehn Jahren traten zehn Länder der Europäischen Union bei. Heute sind Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Slowenien und die Slowakei allgemein als vollständig integrierte europäische Länder anerkannt. Diese neue Normalität – die von den politischen und wirtschaftlichen Verzerrungen des Kalten Krieges weitgehend frei ist –wurde durch den Fall der Berliner Mauer 1989 und den anschließenden profanen und langwierigen EU-Beitrittsprozess in Gang gebracht.

Auf diesem Weg befindet sich nun die Ukraine – ohne das Versprechen eines vollständigen Beitritts. Da sich momentan eine weitere Ära geopolitischer Spannung über den europäischen Kontinent legt, lohnt sich zu diesem Jubiläum die Erinnerung daran, was der neue Normalzustand für die Länder, die der EU vor zehn Jahren beitraten, bedeutet – und was er für die Ukraine bedeuten könnte.

Die „fehlende Mitte“ Europas, die durch den Eisernen Vorhang abgetrennt war, wurde wieder hergestellt. Der Handel in der Region blühte auf und wandte sich auf natürliche Weise in Richtung der EU, den größten Markt der Welt. Die Investitionen flossen – genau entsprechend wirtschaftlicher Theorien – in die andere Richtung: von kapitalstarken in kapitalschwache Länder.

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