La nouvelle normalité fragile de l’Europe

LONDRES – Il y a une décennie, dix pays ont rejoint l’Union européenne. Chypre, la République tchèque, l’Estonie, la Hongrie, la Lettonie, la Lituanie, l’île de Malte, la Pologne, la Slovaquie et la Slovénie sont universellement reconnus comme des pays faisant maintenant partie intégrante de l’Europe. Les bouleversements politiques extraordinaires mis en branle par la chute du mur de Berlin en 1989, conjugués au processus terre à terre et de longue haleine de l’accession à l’Union européenne qui en a découlé a créé cette nouvelle normalité, qui a essentiellement permis aux États d’Europe de l’Est de se libérer du carcan politique et économique imposé par la guerre froide.

L’Ukraine s’engage maintenant sur cette voie, mais sans la promesse d’une accession pleine et entière. Pour cet anniversaire, au milieu d’une vague de tension géopolitique qui retombe encore une fois sur le continent européen, il vaut la peine de commémorer ce que la nouvelle normalité a apporté aux pays qui se sont joints à l’Union européenne il y a dix ans et ce que cela pourrait représenter pour l’Ukraine.

Le « milieu manquant » de l’Europe creusé par le rideau de fer a été comblé. Le commerce de la région est florissant, gravitant naturellement autour de l’Union européenne, le marché le plus important du monde. Les investissements se sont déplacés en sens inverse, des pays riches en capital vers ceux qui en étaient dépourvus, comme le veut la théorie économique.

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