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L’Étrange Mort de la laïcité turque

JÉRUSALEM – Les suites du coup d’État militaire manqué en Turquie soulèvent une question essentielle : le président Recep Tayyip Erdoǧan continuera-t-il sur le chemin autoritaire qu’il emprunte, souvent d’un pas décidé, ou bien renouera-t-il le dialogue avec ses opposants pour réduire les profondes fractures dont souffre la société turque ?

Cela reste à voir, mais à en juger par les précédents historiques, les dirigeants autoritaires réagissent en durcissant leur régime lorsque leur hégémonie est contestée et sont alors peu enclins à la modération. Les initiatives d’Erdoǧan depuis l’échec du putsch – les nouvelles d’arrestations en masse et de milliers de purges touchant militaires, juges, policiers et enseignants ont presque immédiatement suivi – semblent confirmer le plus pessimiste des deux scénarios.

Ce serait pourtant une erreur de voir ce qui se passe aujourd’hui en Turquie au prisme du seul Erdoǧan, de sa personnalité et de ses penchants autoritaires. Avec son parti de la Justice et du développement (AKP), il incarne un glissement tectonique de la politique turque, qui n’est pas sans rappeler ce qu’ont connu d’autres pays à majorité musulmane du Moyen-Orient.

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