tuberculosis test tubes BSIP | getty images

Побеждая в войне с туберкулезом

СИЭТЛ – Люди борются с туберкулезом со времен каменного века. Однако реального прогресса удалось добиться только в прошлом веке. Вакцина, впервые испытанная на организме человека в 1921 году, до сих пор используется во всем мире. И ряд антибиотиков, начиная с испытаний стрептомицина в 1940-х годах, доказали свою эффективность в лечении инфекций.

Начиная с 1990 года, ежегодная смертность от туберкулеза сократилась почти в два раза. С 2000 по 2014 год улучшенные механизмы диагностирования и лечения спасли около 43 миллионов жизней. Тем не менее, прогресс в борьбе сильно замедлился, и это значит, что битва далека от завершения. Ежегодное снижение случаев заболевания за последнее десятилетие составило всего 1,65 %; в 2014 году туберкулез унес 1,5 миллиона человеческих жизней.

В то же время, штаммы данного заболевания приобретают устойчивость к лечению. Злоупотребление и нерациональное использование антибиотиков привело к появлению полирезистентного штамма туберкулеза. Такие штаммы необходимо лечить препаратами второго ряда, которые являются более дорогими и часто вызывают более сильные побочные эффекты. Кроме того, появляются штаммы, устойчивые к препаратам второго ряда, так называемый туберкулез с обширной лекарственной устойчивостью (XDR-TB).

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