tuberculosis test tubes BSIP | getty images

Jak vyhrát válku proti TBC

SEATTLE – Lidské bytosti bojují s tuberkulózou už od doby kamenné. Skutečný pokrok v boji proti nemoci ale přineslo až minulé století. Vakcína, prvně použitá u člověka v roce 1921, se dodnes užívá po celém světě. Jako účinný lék proti infekcím se pak ukázala řada antibiotik, z nichž první byl ve 40. letech streptomycin.

Od roku 1990 se roční počet úmrtí na TBC podařilo snížit téměř na polovinu. V letech 2000 až 2014 lepší diagnóza a léčba zachránila zhruba 43 milionů životů. Nicméně pokrok zpomalil, že se sotva vleče, takže bitva není ani zdaleka za námi. Roční úbytek případů dosáhl v posledním desetiletí pouhých 1,65 %, přičemž v roce 2014 TBC usmrtila 1,5 milionu lidí.

Kmeny choroby přitom získávají lékovou rezistenci. Zneužívání a špatné řízení antibiotik vyústilo ve vznik mnohočetně lékově rezistentní TBC. Tyto kmeny se musí potlačovat léčivy druhé řady, která jsou nákladnější a často vyvolávají horší vedlejší účinky. Objevily se i kmeny rezistentní na léčiva druhé řady, známé jako extenzivně lékově rezistentní TBC.

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