tuberculosis test tubes BSIP | getty images

打赢这场反对结核病的战争

西雅图——人类自从石器时代起就开始与结核病进行战斗。但真正取得对这种疾病的进步还仅仅是上个世纪的事情。一种于1921年首先用于人体的疫苗今天仍然在世界各地广泛使用。而从20世纪40年代链霉素开始的系列抗生素已经被证明能对感染起到有效的治疗作用。

20世纪90年代开始,肺结核的年死亡人数已减少近半数。从2000到2014年,更有效的诊断和治疗技术挽救了约4300万人的生命。尽管如此,进展依然非常缓慢,说明这场战争还远远没有结束。过去10年来肺结核发病数的年下降率仅有1.65%;而2014年一年,肺结核就夺去了150万人的生命。

此外,某些结核病菌株正在对治疗产生耐药性。对于抗生素的滥用和管理不善已经导致耐多药结核病的产生。这些菌株必须动用二线药物治疗,而二线药物不仅昂贵而且往往带来更多副作用。而对二线药物同样产生耐药性的菌株(也就是所谓的广泛耐药性结核病(XDR-TB)也已经产生。

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