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كسب الحرب ضد داء السل

سياتل – يحارب الإنسان داء السل منذ العصر الحجري. لكن تم إحراز تقدم حقيقي ضد هذا المرض في القرن الماضي فقط. وهناك لقاح، استخدم لأول مرة في عام 1921 ولا يزال قيد الاستخدام في جميع أنحاء العالم اليوم. وقد أثبتت سلسلة من المضادات الحيوية، بدءا بالستربتومايسين في 1940، فعاليتها  في علاج الالتهابات.

منذ عام 1990، تم خفض عدد الوفيات بسبب مرض السل إلى النصف سنويا تقريبا. من عام 2000 إلى عام 2014، أدى التشخيص والعلاج الأفضل إلى إنقاذ نحو 43 مليون شخص. ومع ذلك، فقد تباطأ التقدم كثيرا، مما يشير إلى أن المعركة لم تنته بعد. وكان الانخفاض السنوي في عدد الحالات على مدى العقد الماضي مجرد 1.65٪، وفي سنة 2014 قتل السل 1.5 مليون شخص.

وفي الوقت نفسه، أفرزت سلالات المرض مقاومة العلاج. وقد نتج عن سوء استخدام وسوء إدارة المضادات الحيوية مقاومة للأدوية المتعددة. يجب أن تعالج هذه السلالات بأدوية الخط الثاني، والتي هي أكثر تكلفة، وغالبا ما تتسبب في آثار جانبية أسوأ. وظهرت أيضا سلالات مقاومة لأدوية الخط الثاني، والمعروفة باسم مقاوم لأدوية داء السل على نطاق واسع ( (XDR-TB.

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