Die Aufklärung auf dem Prüfstand

Unschöne Debatten über Religion und Naturwissenschaft scheinen normalerweise auf die Vereinigten Staaten beschränkt zu sein. In den letzten Monaten allerdings haben sich derartige Diskussionen zunächst nach Europa und später über die ganze Welt ausgebreitet. Die Naturwissenschaften, so scheint es, sind dabei, in politische Gefahren abzugleiten, mit denen sie seit der Zeit vor der Aufklärung nicht mehr konfrontiert waren.

In Europa nahm die amerikanisch geprägte Debatte über die Entstehung des Lebens ihren Ausgang, als der Wiener Kardinal Christoph Schönborn Zweifel äußerte, ob Darwinismus und Evolutionstheorie für Menschen, die sich selbst als gläubige Katholiken sehen, akzeptabel seien.  Der Kardinal argumentierte, dass die Evolution das Werk Gottes ist und die Evolutionstheorie in diesem und keinem anderen Licht zu interpretieren sei.

Nach dieser Intervention Kardinal Schönborns schien es mit dem Frieden zwischen Naturwissenschaften und Religion, der im alten Europa fast seit der Aufklärung – zumindest aber seit der hart erkämpften Trennung zwischen Kirche und Politik im späten 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert - gehalten hatte, plötzlich vorbei zu sein. Die göttlich offenbarte Wahrheit, so schien es der Kardinal auszudrücken, muss Vorrang vor jenen Wahrheiten haben, welche die Wissenschaft auf Grundlage der Ratio zutage fördert.

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