Energetická nezávislost ve vzájemně závislém světě

CAMBRIDGE – Když prezident Richard Nixon počátkem 70. letech prohlásil, že chce zajistit energetickou nezávislost země, dovážely Spojené státy čtvrtinu své spotřeby ropy. Na konci desetiletí, po arabském ropném embargu a íránské revoluci, zaznamenávala domácí produkce pokles, Američané dováželi polovinu své ropné spotřeby za patnáctinásobek ceny a všeobecně se věřilo, že zemi docházejí zásoby zemního plynu.

Energetické šoky přispěly ke smrtelné kombinaci stagnujícího hospodářského růstu a inflace a po Nixonovi už každý americký prezident označoval energetickou nezávislost za svůj cíl. Málokdo však bral tyto sliby vážně.

Dnešní energetičtí experti se už neušklíbají. Podle americké Energetické informační administrativy se bude do konce tohoto desetiletí produkovat z domácích zdrojů necelá polovina celoamerické spotřeby surové ropy, přičemž 82% bude pocházet z americké strany Atlantiku. Uznávaný energetický analytik Philip Verleger tvrdí, že do roku 2023, kdy si připomeneme 50. výročí Nixonova „Projektu nezávislosti“, budou USA energeticky nezávislé v tom smyslu, že budou víc energie vyvážet, než dovážet.

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