Energetické odzbrojení

BRUSEL – Vrátila se „energetická zbraň“ 70. let minulého století, tedy zadržování dodávek energií s politickými úmysly? O použití ropy nebo plynu jako politické zbraně je samozřejmě snazší hovořit než to skutečně provést, ale letošní opakování rusko-ukrajinského plynového sporu a následný výpadek zásobování značné části Evropské unie by měly v EU přitáhnout pozornost k nutnosti odzbrojit ty, kdo by energetické zbraně využili.

Energetická embarga už jako dlouhodobé strategie prokázala svou marnost. Saúdská Arábie byla v průběhu 12 roků po embargu let 1973-1974 svědkem strmého propadu svého podílu na ropných exportech. Obrovské cenové nárůsty 70. let se projevily jako neudržitelné, protože přiměly vlády v Evropě i jinde, aby své spotřebitele ochránily vyššími daněmi z ropy, úsporami a rozšiřováním ropné produkce mimo OPEC.

Evropa si nemůže dovolit nechat se touto historií uchlácholit. V důsledku opakovaného rusko-ukrajinského sporu musí Evropa u záměru diverzifikovat své energetické dodávky zareagovat s toutéž rozhodností, jakou projevila v 70. letech, když čelila výzvě OPEC. Tak jako v případě zemí Středního východu, jedině trpká zkušenost dá Rusku ponaučení, že energetická bezpečnost je v zájmu všech. Kreml si tuto lekci vezme k srdci, jedině pokud Evropa naplánuje, přijme a bude dodržovat energetickou strategii, která sníží její závislost na ruských dodávkách, a vytvoří si vlastní společnou zahraniční politiku energetické bezpečnosti, jak doporučuje zpráva Evropského parlamentu z roku 2007.

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