Pour un espace économique russo-européen

Depuis quelques temps, le climat n'est pas à la confiance entre la Russie et l'UE. Les dirigeants européens ont vu d'un œil sceptique les récentes élections législatives et présidentielles russes. Les relations diplomatiques entre la Grande-Bretagne et le Kremlin sont au plus bas depuis l'assassinat à Londres en 2006 d'Alexandre Litvenenko, un opposant au gouvernement russe, semble-t-il par un agent russe.

Cette situation constitue une gêne évidente pour les échanges commerciaux et les investissements entre la Russie et l'UE. Entre janvier et août 2007, ces échanges ont atteint un volume de 173,3 milliards de dollars, soit 51,6% du montant du commerce extérieur russe. Plus de la moitié de la production russe est vendue en Europe et deux de ses trois premiers partenaires commerciaux sont européens : l'Allemagne à hauteur de 31,9 milliards de dollars, et les Pays-Bas à hauteur de 28,3 milliards de dollars. Les pays européens représentent 75% des investissements directs en Russie. La Grande-Bretagne vient en tête, avec plus de 15 milliards de dollars investis au cours du premier semestre de l'année dernière, ceci malgré l'affaire Litvenenko et les expulsions réciproques de diplomates des deux pays à ce moment là. 

Néanmoins, le volume des investissements étrangers est inférieur aux besoins de la Russie, car son économie n'est pas équilibrée. Le pétrole et le gaz représentent plus de la moitié de ses exportations, le reste étant constitué essentiellement par des produits chimiques et des produits agricoles. Les pétrodollars sont la principale ressource de la Russie pour développer une société de l'information. La demande en énergie des pays de l'UE ne va pas faiblir et les gisements de Sibérie sont encore loin d'être épuisés.

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