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La fin de la supernation européenne ?

MADRID – Depuis le début de la crise de l'euro en 2008, l'Union européenne, d'un point de vue politique, a une attitude intergouvernementale sous un masque de supranationalisme. Mais à l'heure où l'UE s'apprête à négocier la sortie du Royaume-Uni, la substance supranationale de l'Union apparaît de plus en plus inexistante. La question est désormais de savoir si le statut de l'UE, en tant qu'entreprise sous la conduite de ses États membres, revêt ou non une nature permanente.

Dans le cadre du processus décisionnel de l'UE, la suprématie des États membres – en premier lieu desquels l'Allemagne – ne date pas d'hier. Cette suprématie est apparue évidente tout au long de la crise de l'euro, au cours de laquelle la chancelière allemande Angela Merkel, son ministre des Finances Wolfgang Schäuble, et le président du Conseil européen, à cette période le belge Herman Van Rompuy, ont occupé le devant de la scène.

Le mythe du supranationalisme européen a néanmoins persisté. Illustration toute particulière, après l'accession de Jean-Claude Juncker à la présidence de la Commission européenne en 2014, l'organe exécutif de l'UE a commencé à se décrire lui-même comme l'institution bruxelloise capable de mener la voie en direction de ce que Juncker a appelé « davantage d'union dans notre Union », lors de son discours de 2015 sur l'état de l'Union.

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