Frederick Florin/AFP/Getty Images

欧洲超国家的终结?

发自马德里——从政治的角度看,自2008年欧元区危机爆发以来,欧盟一直是在一个超国家机构的外衣下按照跨政府机构的模式运作着。但随着欧盟准备就英国的退出举行谈判,很显然该机构正日渐撕下这层外衣。如今的问题是欧盟作为一个由其成员国主导的集合体的状态是否是永久性的。

某些会员国在欧盟决策过程中享有的霸主地位——尤其是德国——早就不是什么新鲜事了。很显然在整个欧元区危机期间,德国总理安吉拉·默克尔和她的财政部长沃尔夫冈·朔伊布勒(Wolfgang Schäuble)以及时任欧洲理事会主席的比利时人赫尔曼·范龙佩(Herman Van Rompuy)就占据了主导地位。

但欧洲超国家主义的神话依然存在。尤其是在让-保罗·容克(Jean-Claude Juncker)在2014年接任欧盟委员会主席后,欧盟的执行机构开始将自身认定为一个总部位于布鲁塞尔且有能力带领各国向着容克在2015年欧盟国情咨文讲话中所谓“更联合的联盟”迈进的机构。

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