Business man with mobile phone

Protección de los trabajadores en la economía autónoma

BERKELEY – Los mercados laborales de hoy están experimentando un cambio radical, en tanto las plataformas digitales transforman la manera en que operan y revolucionan la naturaleza del trabajo. En muchos sentidos, éste es un desarrollo positivo que potencialmente puede hacer que los trabajadores y los empleos se correspondan de manera más eficiente y transparente que nunca. Pero la creciente digitalización del mercado laboral también tiene por lo menos una desventaja muy preocupante: está minando las relaciones tradicionales entre empleador y empleado que han sido el principal canal a través del cual se han proporcionado los beneficios y protecciones para los trabajadores.

El ecosistema de las plataformas laborales digitales todavía está en pañales, pero se está desarrollando rápidamente. Las grandes plataformas populares como LinkedIn hasta el momento han sido utilizadas principalmente para hacer coincidir trabajadores de altas calificaciones con empleos de perfil alto. Pero estas plataformas ya se están expandiendo e incluyen trabajadores y empleos de medianas capacidades. Casi 400 millones de personas han publicado sus currículums en LinkedIn, y en 2014 el sitio hizo posibles más de un millón de nuevas contrataciones en todo el mundo.

Mientras tanto, están surgiendo otros tipos de plataformas digitales, que vinculan a los trabajadores con clientes o compañías para tareas o servicios específicos. Estas plataformas juegan un papel cada vez más importante en el mercado de los trabajadores "contingentes" o "a pedido", definidos, en términos generales, como trabajadores cuyos empleos son temporarios y que no tienen contratos estándar de medio tiempo o de tiempo completo con los empleadores. Entre las plataformas digitales muy conocidas que vinculan a trabajadores contingentes directamente con los clientes se encuentran Lyft, TaskRabbit, Uber y Angie's List. y Upwork son ejemplos de plataformas que ayudan a las empresas a encontrar y contratar trabajadores contingentes para un rango de tareas especializadas como desarrollo de software o sitios web. tiene más de 17 millones de usuarios a nivel mundial.

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