Dean Rohrer

La década de agitación de los mercados emergentes

MADRID – En la pasada década, los mercados emergentes se han convertido en el principal motor de crecimiento de la economía global. De acuerdo con HSBC, 19 de los países de mercados emergentes de hoy estarán entre las 30 economías más grandes del mundo en 2050, y serán más importantes que los actuales países de la OCDE.

Los mercados emergentes ya se han apoderado del 40% del PBI mundial y del 37% de la inversión extranjera directa (IED) global. Y, mientras que los países de la OCDE siguen estancados en 2011, los mercados emergentes están creciendo fuertemente. China este año superó a Japón como la segunda economía más grande del mundo, mientras que India atrajo una cifra sin precedentes de 80.000 millones de dólares en IED, el doble que en 2010. Petrobras de Brasil, que ya es una de las compañías petroleras más grandes del mundo, tuvo una OPI récord de 67.000 millones de dólares el año pasado.

La creciente riqueza de estas economías está atrayendo a una cantidad cada vez mayor de multinacionales de la OCDE. En Asia, la clase media hoy representa el 60% del total de la población (1.900 millones de personas). China se convirtió en el principal mercado automotriz del mundo en 2010. La persona más rica del mundo es de México. Y el rápido crecimiento económico está ocurriendo en un contexto de déficits reducidos, baja deuda e inflación bajo control.

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