新发传染性疾病

如今的生物多样性危机已经不仅仅是栖息地消失和物种灭绝了,它还是新发传染性疾病(EID’s)——诸如艾滋病(人类)、埃博拉(人类和猩猩)、西尼罗河病毒和禽流感(人和鸟类), chytrid壶菌(两栖动物)以及瘟热(海狮)等所引发的危机。我们有足够理由来严肃对待这些事件,因为EID’s看来已经经历了很长时间的进化过程。

这是因为许多病原体能够传染诸多宿主,但是却只在某些宿主居住的地方才能进化。病菌通过独特的方式在宿主之间传播。举例来说,若某种病菌是通过某种居住在树顶的昆虫传播的,那么那些从不离开地面的宿主就不可能被传染。

对人类而言,艾滋病、埃博拉、西尼罗河病毒和禽流感只是无数EID’s中最新出现的几种。一百万年前,当我们的祖先从非洲丛林搬迁至大草原时,他们很快就成为了战斗力极强的肉食动物。由于和那些早就存在的肉食动物一起食用猎物,他们得上了原先只在狼狗、大型猫科动物和非洲猎狗身上才会寄居的绦虫。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

Registration is quick and easy and requires only your email address. If you already have an account with us, please log in. Or subscribe now for unlimited access.

required

Log in

http://prosyn.org/juXBSQc/zh;
  1. Patrick Kovarik/Getty Images

    The Summit of Climate Hopes

    Presidents, prime ministers, and policymakers gather in Paris today for the One Planet Summit. But with no senior US representative attending, is the 2015 Paris climate agreement still viable?

  2. Trump greets his supporters The Washington Post/Getty Images

    Populist Plutocracy and the Future of America

    • In the first year of his presidency, Donald Trump has consistently sold out the blue-collar, socially conservative whites who brought him to power, while pursuing policies to enrich his fellow plutocrats. 

    • Sooner or later, Trump's core supporters will wake up to this fact, so it is worth asking how far he might go to keep them on his side.
  3. Agents are bidding on at the auction of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi' Eduardo Munoz Alvarez/Getty Images

    The Man Who Didn’t Save the World

    A Saudi prince has been revealed to be the buyer of Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi," for which he spent $450.3 million. Had he given the money to the poor, as the subject of the painting instructed another rich man, he could have restored eyesight to nine million people, or enabled 13 million families to grow 50% more food.

  4.  An inside view of the 'AknRobotics' Anadolu Agency/Getty Images

    Two Myths About Automation

    While many people believe that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically, there is no evidence of either trend. In reality, total factor productivity, the best summary measure of the pace of technical change, has been stagnating since 2005 in the US and across the advanced-country world.

  5. A student shows a combo pictures of three dictators, Austrian born Hitler, Castro and Stalin with Viktor Orban Attila Kisbenedek/Getty Images

    The Hungarian Government’s Failed Campaign of Lies

    The Hungarian government has released the results of its "national consultation" on what it calls the "Soros Plan" to flood the country with Muslim migrants and refugees. But no such plan exists, only a taxpayer-funded propaganda campaign to help a corrupt administration deflect attention from its failure to fulfill Hungarians’ aspirations.

  6. Project Syndicate

    DEBATE: Should the Eurozone Impose Fiscal Union?

    French President Emmanuel Macron wants European leaders to appoint a eurozone finance minister as a way to ensure the single currency's long-term viability. But would it work, and, more fundamentally, is it necessary?

  7. The Year Ahead 2018

    The world’s leading thinkers and policymakers examine what’s come apart in the past year, and anticipate what will define the year ahead.

    Order now