新发传染性疾病

如今的生物多样性危机已经不仅仅是栖息地消失和物种灭绝了,它还是新发传染性疾病(EID’s)——诸如艾滋病(人类)、埃博拉(人类和猩猩)、西尼罗河病毒和禽流感(人和鸟类), chytrid壶菌(两栖动物)以及瘟热(海狮)等所引发的危机。我们有足够理由来严肃对待这些事件,因为EID’s看来已经经历了很长时间的进化过程。

这是因为许多病原体能够传染诸多宿主,但是却只在某些宿主居住的地方才能进化。病菌通过独特的方式在宿主之间传播。举例来说,若某种病菌是通过某种居住在树顶的昆虫传播的,那么那些从不离开地面的宿主就不可能被传染。

对人类而言,艾滋病、埃博拉、西尼罗河病毒和禽流感只是无数EID’s中最新出现的几种。一百万年前,当我们的祖先从非洲丛林搬迁至大草原时,他们很快就成为了战斗力极强的肉食动物。由于和那些早就存在的肉食动物一起食用猎物,他们得上了原先只在狼狗、大型猫科动物和非洲猎狗身上才会寄居的绦虫。

To continue reading, please log in or enter your email address.

To read this article from our archive, please log in or register now. After entering your email, you'll have access to two free articles every month. For unlimited access to Project Syndicate, subscribe now.

required

By proceeding, you agree to our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy, which describes the personal data we collect and how we use it.

Log in

http://prosyn.org/juXBSQc/zh;

Cookies and Privacy

We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. To find out more, read our updated cookie policy and privacy policy.