Resurge la esperanza en África

La canciller alemana Angela Merkel ha colocado a África firmemente en el programa de la Cumbre del G8, que se celebrará la semana que viene. En Liberia y en toda África acogemos con beneplácito su capacidad de mando y agradecemos el apoyo del G8 a África, en particular sus compromisos en los últimos años de reducir la carga de la deuda, duplicar la ayuda de aquí a 2010, ampliar el acceso al comercio y luchar contra el VIH/SIDA. Los grandes esfuerzos por parte de los africanos, junto con las inversiones del G8 y otros asociados, están dando resultados importantes y que con frecuencia pasan inadvertidos al mundo exterior.

Piénsese en tres tendencias históricas de la mayor importancia. Primera, en 1989 sólo había cuatro democracias en África. En la actualidad, hay al menos 18, incluidos Sudáfrica, Mozambique, Tanzania, Benin, Malí, Ghana, Senegal y Liberia, el país que más recientemente ha entrado a formar parte de ese grupo. Segunda, las políticas económicas han mejorado en gran medida. Con pocas excepciones, los dobles tipos de cambio, la hiperinflación y las extensas barreras comerciales ya son cosas del pasado. Tercera, para muchos países el período de 25 años de crisis de la deuda se ha acabado por fin, lo que ha permitido mucho mayores inversiones en salud, educación e infraestructuras.

Esas tres tendencias se combinan en un grupo de unos 15 países africanos que están profundamente comprometidos con una gestión de los asuntos públicos con rendición de cuentas y con políticas económicas sensatas. Esos países están escolarizando a más niños, luchando vigorosamente contra las enfermedades y creando nuevas oportunidades económicas para los pobres. Los ingresos medios han aumentado un 25 por ciento en el último decenio: una gran diferencia respecto del crecimiento cero del pasado. Su recuperación sigue siendo frágil, pero es real y tangible y está infundiendo una nueva esperanza en todo el continente.

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